What Is Pharmacodynamics?
What Is Pharmacodynamics?
Pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of drugs’ molecular, biochemical, and physiologic effects. In other words, it is how a certain drug concentration interacts with the body to produce biological effects.
Drugs work in our bodies in several ways. They interfere with microorganisms or germs that attack your body cells and alter how cells work in your body.
Examples of Pharmacodynamics
- Drugs binding to an active part of an enzyme
- Drugs that interact with cell surface signaling proteins
- Drugs that act by binding molecules
There are two kinds of reactions that take place after consuming a drug: what the drug does to the body and what the body does to the drug. These two phenomena are known as pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, respectively.
Difference Between Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
- Absorption: The process by which a drug is absorbed into the body from the stomach and intestine.
- Distribution: Distribution refers to how the drug is distributed through body fluids and tissues.
- Metabolism: The process by which the liver and other sense organs metabolize a drug.
- Excretion: The process by which a drug is removed from the body through the urine, skin, and other organs.
Main Drug Actions
- Simulation: Selective enhancement of particular cells’ activity
- Depression: Selective inhibition of particular cells’ activity
- Block/Antagonize: The drug binds the receptor but does not activate it
- Stabilize: The drug does not appear to act as a stimulant or a depressant
- Exchange/Replace: Exchange or replace substances or gather them to form a reserve
Direct Chemical Reactions: Can be either beneficial (therapy) or have adverse effects
Why Pharmacodynamics Analysis Are Important
Why Is Applying Pharmacodynamics Models in Preclinical Trials Important?
How to Use Pharmacodynamics Analysis
Characterize Drug Exposure
Aside from intravenous (IV) drugs, only a small portion of the drug dose is assimilated. Therefore, measuring the rate and extent of drug exposure is essential for determining how to guide its use in the clinic.
Determine an Appropriate Dose for a Clinical Study
Access Changes in Dose Requirements
Estimate the Rate of Elimination and Absorption
Access Relative Bioavailability/Bioequivalence
Evaluating the extent of absorption of a new formulation compared to an existing formulation can help show therapeutic benefits.
Characterize Intra- and Inter-subject Variability
Understand the Concentration-Effect Relationship
Establish Safety Margins and Efficacy Characteristics
PD Analysis and Reporting
This includes noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and PD modeling and simulation. NCAs are vital for evaluating exposure to a drug.3
Designing and Interpreting Preclinical ADME and Clinical Studies
Creating Integrated Study Reports or Stand-Alone Reports
Data Management and CDISC Dataset Generation
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